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Denumire Piment (Piment)
Denumirea in latina Pimenta officinalis L.
Pimenta dioica L.-Merrill
Familia Myrtaceae
Tari de provenienta Indiile de V, Mexic, Jamaica, Grenada, , Guatemala, Honduras, Cuba, Brasilia.
Gust Asemanator cuisoarelor, putin piperat, dulce, seamana si cu scortisoara si nucsoara, de aceea e denumit si "All-spice".
Forma de intrebuintare Se folosesc drept condiment boabele necoapte, fara codite, si apoi uscate, intregi, sparte sau macinate.
Aspect Boabele inca verzi la recoltare se maronesc in timpul uscarii. Sunt rotunde, mate, cu un diametru de 5-8 mm si cu o suprafata aspra. In interiorul fructului sunt doua camari, care cantin fiecare cate o samanta de 3-4 mm.
Substante componente Uleiul eteric: 2,1-5,2% cu componentele urmatoare: eugenol, 60-80%, eugenolmetileter, 9-10%,1,8%-cineo1, cariofilina, felandrina s.a. Compozitia chimica a uleiului eteric in functie de provenienta, in %
Componente 1 2 3 4 5
alfa-pinen+alfa-tuien 0,30 0,27-0,52 0,05-0,6 0,14 0,15
mircen 0.17 0.20-0.30 6.76-8.4 9.04 5.28
alfa-felandrina 0.44 0.50-1.17 - - -
limonen 0.36 0.14-0.22 0.23-0.3 0.26 0.36
1,8-cineol 3.17 0.92-1.34 0.7-0.96 0.70 2.22
beta-ocimen+gama-terpinen 0.32 0.33-0.73 1.28-1.61 1.45 1.36
p-cimen 0.17 0.23-0.56 0.04-0.4 0.09 0.09
terpinolen 0.49 0.70-1.46 0.18-0.2 0.32 0.45
linalool 0.32 0.15-0.16 0.15-0.2 0.36 0.37
beta-elemen+ terpinen-4-o1 0.37 0.55-0.65 0.29-0.37 0.40 0.55
izocariofilina+beta-cariofilina 5.94 4.25-5.39 4.37-6.07 6.60 4.04
allo-aromadendren 0.11 0.05-0.09 - 0.08 1.30
alfa-terpineol+gama / beta-humulen 2.22 1.60-1.83

0.73-0.92

0.97 -
alfa-selinen+beta-selinen 0.61 0.74-0.99 0.19-0.26 0.22 0.34
gama-cadien 1.31 0.77-0.86 0.27-0.3 0.45 0.19
ar-curcumen 0.80 0.13-0.21 0.12-0.14 0.09 0.07
metileugenol 0.46 2.90-13.11 14.91-28.08 5.62 27.5
oxid cariofilinic +cariofilenal 0.24 0.31-0.54 - 0.26 -
beta-cariofilenalcool 0.41 0.43-0.58 0.56-0.58 0.21 -
eugenol 79.06 68.75-78.23 52.6-61.6 67.94 49.12
chavicol 0.05 0.24-0.46 0.38-0.59 1.02 1.21

Legenda: 1 = Grenada 2 = Jamaica 3 = Honduras 4 = Guatemala 5 = Mexic
Alte substante define de a fi mentionate sunt: hidrocarburi, albumina, tanin, rasini, uleiuri grase, zahar, vitamine Cu cat este mai copt, cu atat scade continutul de ulei eteric, cele prea coapte de-abia mai au valoare de condiment.
Intrebuintare Carnati, copturi, peste, marinate, supe, sosuri, lichioruri, ciocolata, vanat, amestecuri de condimente, sfecla rosie, pudding.
Particularitati Este un condiment nou. Stimuleaza salivatia, este antioxidant si antimicrobian.
Bibliografie (1) Smith, R.: High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of eugenol in pimento using electronical detection
(2) Oberdieck, R.: Piment
(3) Pino, J.: Analyse des aetherischen Oeles von Piment
(4) Lawrence, B. M.: Progress in essential oils
 

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